December 19, 2017

Srikaanth Kumar

Biomedical Engineering Advanced Interview Questions And Answers

What Is Myoelectric Control?

Myoelectric control uses the signals from a residual limb for the movement of the prosthetics. Myoelectric control technologies obtain signals from the skin on the limbs.

Do You Know About Alzheimer's Disease?

Alzheimer's is a brain disease caused due to tau protein misfolding. It is an incurable disease and can be diagnosed in a PET or MRI scan. Alzheimer's is related more with aging, where the disease is detected in human more than 65 years of age. The symptoms are memory losses, stress, confusion and also aggression. Diagnosis is mostly done by behavior related tests.

Do You Know About Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder. It occurs due to abnormal signals in the human brain. These abnormal signals cause seizures and unconsciousness.

Do You Know What Are The Most Commonly Used Technologies In Medical Imaging?

Electron microscopy, Computer Tomography, radiography, thermography, nuclear medicine, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

What Is Therapeutic Cloning?

Cloning is a method of duplicating a DNA or a part of the DNA. Therapeutic cloning otherwise called somatic cell nuclear transfer is a process where an embryo is utilized. The embryo contains stem cells, which can be used in regeneration applications. Embryonic stem cells have the capability of renewing and are pluripotent that is it can transform or grow into more than 220 types of cells of the human body.

Explain The Mechanism Of Elisa. What Are Its Uses?

ELISA stands for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It is a wet lab type analytical biochemistry assay. It can detect presence of a substance in a liquid or wet sample by using one subtype of heterogeneous, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. ELISA can be used as ligand binding assays. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medicine and plant pathology. Quality check operations can also be performed in various industries with the help of ELISA.

What Is Isotopic Tracer Technique?

This technique is used to understand chemical reaction and interactions in bio-chemistry and chemistry. In this technique, one or more of the atoms of the molecule of interest is substituted for an atom of the same chemical element, but that element belongs to different isotope. It can be used to detect the difference in number of neutrons separately from the other atoms of the same element. The atom has the same number of protons; it will behave in almost exactly the same way chemically as other atoms in the compound, and with few exceptions will not interfere with the reaction under investigation.

Explain The Difference Between Gram Positive And Gram Negative Bacteria?

In gram staining protocol, gram positive bacteria are stained dark blue or violet. Crystal violet stain can be retained by the gram positive bacteria because of the high amount of the peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Gram-positive cell walls typically lack the outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

In gram staining protocol, gram negative bacteria do not retain crystal violet dye. Gram negative bacteria have pathogenic capability. Gram negative bacteria have cytoplasmic membrane which is not present in gram positive bacteria.

What Are Forbidden Clones?

Clones refer to producing genetically identical individuals. Forbidden clones refer to clones of those cells which had immunological reactivity with self antigens. Embryonic life is eliminated from these types of clones. Such type of clones is called 'forbidden clones'.

What Is Superiority Of Tlc Over Paper Chromatography?

TLC is superior over paper chromatography because of inorganic nature of adsorbent concentrated sulfuric acid spray. The spray is then followed by heating. It may be used to develop on the chromatogram by charring. Also, amino acid mixtures require 18 hours for separation on paper. It requires 3 hrs using cellulose TLC. The advantages of TLC lie in adsorbents which don't allow separation on paper. In TLC we have much wider choice of adsorbents depending upon needs and sample.

Explain The Biological Neuron Model. How Is It Different From Artificial Neuron?

Biological neuron is also commonly known as spiking neuron model. This model is mathematical description of the properties of the nerve cell or neuron. This model is formulated to predict and describe the biological processes. This is different from artificial neuron because, artificial neuron is based on computational effectiveness. Artificial neuron is based on the synaptic weight for determining the neuron output.

What Is Biomechanics?

Biomechanics applies principles of mechanics to understand and simulate medical problems and systems such as fluid transport and range of motion. Prosthetic organs such as artificial hearts, kidneys, and joints are examples of devices developed by biomechanical engineers.

What Is Bioinstrumentation?

Bioinstrumentation involves use of engineering principles and methods, including computers, in developing devices for diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Do You Know What Biomedical Engineers Actually Do?

Biomedical engineers may work in hospitals, universities, industry and laboratories. They enjoy a range of possible duties, including the design and development of artificial organs, modeling of physical processes, development of blood sensors and other physiologic sensors, design of therapeutic strategies and devices for injury recovery, development and refinement of imaging techniques and equipment, development of advanced detection systems, testing of product performance, and optimal lab design.

Do You Know What Is Biomedical Engineering?

Biomedical Engineering blends traditional engineering techniques with biological sciences and medicine to improve the quality of human health and life. The discipline focuses both on understanding complex living systems - via experimental and analytical techniques - and on development of devices, methods and algorithms that advance medical and biological knowledge while improving the effectiveness and delivery of clinical medicine.

What You Know Dna Fingerprinting?what Techniques Are Used For Dna Fingerprinting?

DNA fingerprinting or genetic fingerprinting is a technique wherein a DNA sequence is used for identification of an individual. It is mostly used in forensics. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Short Tandem Repeats techniques are commonly used for DNA fingerprinting.

What Is Biomaterials?

Biomaterials involves development of natural living tissue and artificial materials for use in the human body. Choice of materials with appropriate properties is critical to design of functional organs, bones and other implantable materials, which may include alloys, ceramics, polymers and composites.

What Is Clinical Engineering In Biomedical Engineering?

Clinical Engineering involves development and maintenance of computer databases, inventorying medical equipment and instruments as well as purchase of medical equipment used in hospitals. Clinical engineers may work with physicians to customize equipment to the explicit needs of the hospital or medical procedure.

What Is Medical Imaging?

Medical Imaging combines electronic data processing, analysis and display with understanding of physical phenomena to identify and characterize health problems such as tumors, malformations and the like. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and other techniques are commonly used

What Is Rehabilitation Engineering?

Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on enhancing the independence, capabilities and quality of life of individuals with physical impairments. This specialty may involve development of customized solutions to address highly specific needs of individuals.

What Is Bmi?

BMI is Body Mass Index. It is a comparison of a person's height and weight. It is a person's weight divided by the square of the height. Its SI unit is kg/sq.m.

Explain Mri?

MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is a medical imaging technique that gives a detailed structure of internal organs, especially soft tissues. MRI uses a strong magnetic field and generates images and models of the specified organ.

What Are The Wave Patterns Seen In An Eeg Scan?

Wave patterns seen in an EEG scan are delta - state of sleep, theta drowsiness, alpha - relaxation, beta - active thinking and gamma. Alpha also contains a mu-rhythm

Explain What Is The Principle Behind Dna Fingerprinting?

DNA fingerprinting is the technique of genetic fingerprinting. In this technique, DNA sequence can be used for identification of an individual. The main application of DNA fingerprinting is forensics. The main principle behind behind DNA fingerprinting is Polymerase Chain Reaction. This technique is also popularly known as DNA profiling.

What Is Pathogens. Name Some Types Of Pathogens?

Pathogens are those organism which feeds on other organism for their food. Pathogens can be transported through many different routes, including airborne, direct or indirect contact, sexual contact, through blood, breast milk, or other body fluids, and through the fecal-oral route. Pathogens can be used to suppress pest population. Different types of pathogens are viral, bacterial, fungal etc.

What Is A Microarray?

Microarrays are arrays where DNA oligonucleotides of DNA sequences are spotted as a matrix. Microarrays are used in gene expression profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism detection, detection of alternative splicing etc. Microarrays perform hybridization of cDNA using probes. A microarray chip has the capability to perform a large set of genetic related experiments simultaneously.

What Is Systems Physiology?

Systems Physiology focuses on understanding - at the microscopic and submicroscopic levels - how systems within living organisms function, from pharmaceutical drug response to metabolic systems and disease response, voluntary limb movements to skin healing and auditory physiology. This specialty involves experimentation and modeling using mathematical formulations.

Do You Know What Are Some Important Advances Made By Biomedical Engineers?

Biomedical Engineers have developed many important techniques and equipment:

Hip joint replacement.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Heart pacemakers.
Arthroscopic instrumentation for diagnostic and surgical purposes.
Heart-lung machines.
Bioengineered skin.
Time-release drug delivery.
Artificial articulated joints.
Kidney dialysis.

Do You Know What Is Flow Control In Biomedical Engineering?

Flow control, also called optimized production technology, focuses on the efficient flow of material through the production process. The philosophy of flow control focuses on bottlenecks. For example, an owner using flow control will not buy a machine capable of 1,000 units an hour if supply is only 500 units. Examine systems and determine where lowest flow is experienced, then address that point and make sure it operates at full capacity. Flow control applies well where maximum productivity is required.

What Is Gram Staining Method?

This method is used to identify bacterial species into two communities i.e. Gram positive and gram negative. This method is based on chemical and physical properties of their cell walls. It can be used to detect peptidoglycan, which is present in a thick layer in Gram positive bacteria. Purple/blue colour refers to the gram positive bacteria. Red colour stain refers to the gram negative bacteria. This method is very popularly used in the identification of bacterial organism.

Explain What Is Blood Brain Barrier?

Blood brain barrier is caused in central nervous system, when blood circulation is separated from the brain extra cellular fluid (BECF). This phenomenon occurs along all capillaries. It consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation. Cells of the barrier actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier with specific proteins. This barrier also consists of astrocytic end feet and also includes a thick basement membrane.

Do You Know What Is Lmo? State Some Of Its Importance?

LMO stands for living modified organism. LMO are those organisms that have been genetically modified through the application of biotechnology. LMO also includes organisms that have been modified by novel recombinant DNA techniques as well as those that have been modified by mutagenesis or classical breeding and selection techniques. Importance of LMO's is that they can eat hazardous waste.

What Is Technique Of Gene Conversion?

Gene conversion refers to the event in DNA genetic recombination. This event occurs at high frequencies during meiotic division but which also occurs in somatic cells. Through this process we can transfer DNA information from one DNA helix to another DNA helix, whose sequence is altered. Gene mutation can also be accomplished through this process. IT may lead to non-Mendelian inheritance. This phenomenon has often been recorded in fungal crosses.

What Is Rccs? What Is Its Lifespan?

RCCS stands for rotary cell culture system. It is a device designed to grow three-dimensional cell clusters in microgravity. This device was developed by NASA to study the cell tissues of mammals-including humans-in microgravity. Tissues grown in the RCCS are larger and three-dimensional, with structural and chemical characteristics similar to normal tissue. RCCS has no moving parts, thus cells are less prone to damage and hence provides longer life span.

What Is Method Of Perfusion. State Some Of Its Drawbacks?

Perfusion is the process of delivery of blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. Tests of adequate perfusion are a part of the patient assessment process performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusion can be of two types over perfusion and under perfusion. Types of perfusion is classified according to the average level of perfusion across all tissues in an individual body, Tissues like the heart are considered overperfused and receive more blood than would be expected to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue.

Explain Difference Between Introns And Exons?

An intron refers to any nucleotide sequence within a gene which is removed by RNA splicing to generate the final mature RNA product of a gene. The term intron refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene, and the corresponding sequence in RNA transcripts. Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses.

An exon can be referred to a sequence in DNA or its RNA transcript. In broad sense. An exon is a nucleic acid sequence that is represented in the mature form of an RNA molecule.

What Are Immunoglobulins? Explain Its Structure?

Immunoglobulins are popularly known as antibody. These are large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. Immunoglobulins are "Y" shaped structure which is having two tips and each tip of immunoglobulins contains a paratope. Immunoglobulins are typically made of basic structural units-each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. The general structure of all antibodies is very similar; a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable.

What Is Frame Shift Mutation? Is This Mutation Similar To Single-nucleotide Polymorphism?

This is the type of mutation in which DNA sequence is changed due to addition and deletion of nucleotides. This mutation changes the code for amino acids. This is also called framing error or reading frame shift. This mutation will cause the reading of the codons after the mutation to code for different amino acids. No, this mutation is not similar to single-nucleotide polymorphism. In single-nucleotide polymorphism nucleotide is replaced, rather than inserted or deleted.

Explain The Difference Between Retrovirus And Provirus?

A retrovirus is a RNA virus which can be duplicated in a host cell using the reverse transcriptase enzyme. It can produce DNA from its RNA genome. The produced DNA is then incorporated into the host's genome by anintegrase enzyme. The RNA virus thereafter replicates as part of the host cell's DNA. Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that belong to the viral family Retroviridae.

Provirus is a virus genome which can integrate into DNA of host cell. In inactive viral infections the virus will not replicate itself but through replication of its host cell. This state can last over many host cell generations.

What Is Prosthetic Limb? What Are Its Drawbacks?

It is an artificial device which can be used to replace a missing body part. It is based on the principle of biomechatronics. It can be used to replace body part missing from birth, due to injury or due to defect. The main drawback of prosthetic limb is its cost. Moreover, prosthetic limbs have to be replaced every 3-4 year due to the wear and tear. If the limb has fit tissues then the sockets in the limb have to be replaced every month.

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