January 2, 2018

Srikaanth Kumar

Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Interview Questions Answers

What Is Sampling?

The process of obtaining set of samples from a continuous function of time x(T) is referred to as sampling.

State Sampling Theorem?

It states that, while taking the samples of a continuous signal, it has to be taken care that the sampling rate is equal to or greater than twice the cut off frequency and the minimum sampling rate is known as the Nyquist rate.

What Is An Embedded System?

An embedded system is a special purpose computer system which is completely encapsulated by device it control. It is a programmed hardware device in which the hardware chip is programmed with specific function. It is a combination of hardware and software.

What Are The Characteristics Of Embedded System?

 The Characteristics of the embedded systems are as follows

Sophisticated functionality
Real time behavior
Low manufacturing cost
Low power consumption
User friendly
Small size

What Are The Types Of Embedded System?

They are of 4 types

General computing
Control System
Embedded Systems Signal Processing
Communication and network

What Is Digital Signal Controller?

DSC is i6 bit RISC machine that combines control advantages of micro-controller and digital signal processing to produce tightly coupled single chip-single instruction stream solution for embedded system design.

What Are The Components Of Embedded System?

Microcontroller. microprocessor, DSC. DSP, busses. System clock, Read only Memory(ROM), RAM, Real time clock these are the components of embedded system.

What Is A Microprocessor?

Microprocessor is a CPU fabricated on a single chip, program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions.

What Is Instruction Set?

It is the set of the instructions that the Microprocessor can execute.

What Is Bandwidth?

The number of bits processed by the processor in a single instruction.

What Is Clock Speed?

Clock speed is measured in the MHz and it determines that how many instructions a processor can processed. The speed of the microprocessor is measured in the MHz or GHz.

What Is Electronic?

The study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged articles.

What Is Communication?

Communication means transferring a sigma from the transmitter which passes through a medium then the output is obtained at the receiver. (or)communication says as transferring communication.

Different Types Of Communications? Explain.

Analog and digital communication.  As a technology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (the human voice) and translating it into electronic pulses. Digital on the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is represented lw a series of “i”s and “o”s.

Digital signals are immune to noise. quality of transmission and reception is good, components used in digital communication can be produced with high precision and power consumption is also very less when compared with analog signals.

What Are The Features Of Intel 8086?


Released by Intel in 1978
Produced from 1978 to 1990s
A 16-bit microprocessor chip.
Max. CPU clock rate:5 MHz to 10 MHz
Instruction set: x86-16
Package: 40 pin DIP
16-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit
i6-bit data bus (8088 has 8-bit data bus)
20-bit address bus — 220 = 1,048,576 = 1 meg
The address refers to a byte in memory.

Define Image?

An image may be defined as two dimensional light intensity) function f(x, y) where x and y denote spatial co-ordinate and the amplitude or value of I at any point (x, y) is called intensity or ‘gray scale or brightness of the image at that point.

What Is Dynamic Range?

The range of values spanned by the gray scale is called dynamic range of an image. Image will have high contrast, if the dynamic range is high and image will have dull washed out gray look if 1the dynamic range is low.

Define Brightness?

Brightness of an object is the perceived luminance of the surround. Two objects with different surroundings would have identical luminance but different brightness.

What Do You Meant By Gray Level?

Gray level refers to a scalar measure of intensity that ranges from black to grays and finally to white.

What Do You Meant By Color Model?

A Color model is a specification of 3D-coordinates system and a subspace within that system where each color is represented by a single point.

What Is Measurement?

The process of determining the amount, degree, or capacity by comparison (direct or indirect) with the accepted standards of the system units being used.

What Is Accuracy Of A Measurement?

The degree of exactness (closeness) of a measurement compared to the expected (desired) value.

What Is Resolution Of A Measurement?

The smallest change in a measured variable to which an instrument will respond.

What Is Precision Of A Measurement?

A measure of the consistency or repeatability of measurement, i.e. successive reading do not differ.

What Is Sensitivity Of A Measurement?

The ratio of the change in output (response) of the instrument to a change of input or measured variable.

What Is Microwave Engineering?

Microwave engineering is the study and design of microwave circuits , components , and systems. Fundamental principles are applied to analysis , design and measurement technician this field. The short wavelengths involved distinguish this discipline from electronic engineering . This is because there are different interactions with circuits, transmissions and propagation characteristics at microwave frequencies.

Define S-matrix And Its Properties?

 In a microwave junction there is an interaction of three or more components .There will be an output port, in addition there may be reflection from the junction of other ports. Totally there  may be many combination, these are represented easily using a matrix called S matrix.

Properties of s- matrix

it possess symmetric properties sij=sji
it possess unitary property

Write The Applications Of Microwave Engineering?

Following are the applications of microwave engineering

Antenna gain is proportional to the electrical size of the  antenna. At higher frequencies, more antenna gain is therefore possible for a given physical antenna size, which has important consequences for implementing miniaturized microwave systems.
More bandwidth can be realized at higher frequencies. Bandwidth is critically important because available frequency bands in the electromagnetic spectrum are being rapidly depleted.
Microwave signals travel by line of sight are not bent by the ionosphere as are lower frequency signals and thus satellite and terrestrial communication links with very high capacities are possible.

Why Is S-matrix Used In Mw Analysis?

Matrix is used in MW analysis to overcome the problem which occurs when H.’ & Z parameter are used in high frequencies.

What Are The Advantages Of Abcd Matrix?

The advantages of ABCD matrix are as follows

They are used in power transmission lines

They are helpful in case of cascade networks.

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