December 14, 2017

Sreekanth B

Hardware and Networking Freshers Interview Questions Answers


What Is A Node And Links?

In a network the devices at different endpoint located at a different location are called nodes and the physical communication medium they using is called links.

What Is The Hello Protocol Used For?

The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing. It is an alternative to the Routing Information Protocol.

What Are The Three Type Of Routing Tables And What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of These?

The three types of routing tables are fixed, dynamic, and fixed central.

A fixed table must be manually modified every time there is a change.
A dynamic table changes its information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual maintenance.

A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. The fixed central table reduces the need to update each machine's table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table causes the fewest problems for a network administrator, although the table's contents can change without the administrator being aware of the change.

Hardware and Networking Freshers Interview Questions Answers

What Is Packet Filter?

Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.

Bootp Helps A Disk Less Workstation Boot. How Does It Get A Message To The Network Looking For Its Ip Address And The Location Of Its Operating System Boot Files?

BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnet work broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it. If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another UDP message to query the server.

What Is A Dns Resource Record?

DNS resource record is an entry in a name server's database. There are several types of resource records used, including name-to-address resolution information. Resource records are maintained as ASCII files.

What Protocol Is Used By Dns Name Servers?

DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transmission reliability suffers with UDP.

What Is The Difference Between Interior And Exterior Neighbour Gateways?

Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world.

What Is Region?

When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions.

What Is Multicast Routing?

Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.

What Is Traffic Shaping?

One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping.

What Is Ip?

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

What Are The Difference Between Hub And Switch?

Hub is a layer 1 device. It will out the signal from all of its port except the one from where It’s insert. It is unable to detect the collision. It works on single collision and a single broadcast domain. Switch is layer 2 device. It maintains a CAM table that store the MAC address of devices attached to its port. CAM table is used to make the forwarding decision. It works on per port collision and single broadcast domain.

What Is A Layer?

Layer is a completely logical partition of PDU (protocol data unit) process. That define how the information travels from one computer to another over the network.

What Is Tcp/ip?

It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard.

Explain Hidden Shares. How Do They Work?

Hidden or administrative shares are share names with a dollar sign ($) appended to their names. Administrative shares are usually created automatically for the root of each drive letter. They do not display in the network browse list.

What Is The Difference Between Arp And Rarp?

The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP uery packet that includes the IP address of the receiver. The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address.

What Is Client/server?

Clients and Servers are separate logical entities that work together over a network to accomplish a task. Many systems with very different architectures that are connected together are also called Client/Server.

What Is Mac Address?

It is the 48 bit hardware address of LAN card. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and it is unique.

What Are The Perquisites To Configure Server?

•LAN card should be connected:

•Root (partition on which window is installed) should in NTFS

•Server should be configured with a static IP address

How We Will Configure Ads?

Start ==> RUN ==> DCPROMO

How Will You Test Lan Card?

Ping 127.0.0.1

If getting reply its fine

What Is Map Drive?

A special feature that will map network resource to my computer.

What Is Proxy Server?

Most large businesses, organizations, and universities these days use a proxy server. This is a server that all computers on the local network have to go through before accessing information on the Internet. By using a proxy server, an organization can improve the network performance and filter what users connected to the network can access.

Which Are The Bootable Files Of 98 And Xp?

In windows98 it is command.com
In XP it is NTLDR

In Which Partition Linux Is Installed?

Linux doesn’t support windows file system that contain partition scheme. It (Linux) has its own file system known as ext2, and ext3. it will install only on it.In linux file system it will install on / (root) partition.

What Is Size Of Swap?

It’s the hard disk space that is used as RAM for fast processing. In window it’s known as virtual memory and could be set as per retirement via this path
My Computer ==> properties ==> advance
In Linux it’s known as SWAP space and generally taken the double size of physical RAM For example if you have 256 (MB) DDR physical ram then swap space would be 512 MB.

What Is Full Form Of C.m.o.s?

Complementary metal oxide semiconductor

How Will You Check Ip Address Without Using Network Place?

Start ==> Run ==> Command ==>ipconfig

What Is Attenuation?

The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation.

What Is Cladding?

A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.

What Is Netbios And Netbeui?

NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications.
NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by Microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.

What Is Beaconing?

The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks.

What Is Terminal Emulation, In Which Layer It Comes?

Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer.

What Is Frame Relay, In Which Layer It Comes?

Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer.

What Do You Meant By "triple X" In Networks?

The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations are often called "triple X".

What Is Sap?

Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack.

What Is Subnet?

A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router.

What Is Subnet Mask?

It is a term that makes distinguish between network address and host address in IP address. Subnet mask value 0 defines host partition in IP address and value 1 – 255 defines Network address.

Describe Various Network Type?

Local Area Networks Local area networks (LANs) are used to connect networking devices that are in a very close geographic area, such as a floor of a building, a building itself, or a campus environment.
Wide Area Networks Wide area networks (WANs) are used to connect LANs together. Typically, WANs are used when the LANs that must be connected are separated by a large distance.
Metropolitan Area Networks A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a hybrid between a LAN and a WAN.
Content Networks Content networks (CNs) were developed to ease users’ access to Internet resources. Companies deploy basically two types of CNs:
       
1.Caching downloaded Internet information

2.Distributing Internet traffic loads across multiple servers

Storage Area Networks Storage area networks (SANs) provide a high-speed infrastructure to move data between storage devices and file servers.

Advantage

Performance is fast.
Availability is high because of the redundancy features available.
Distances can span up to 10 kilometers.
Management is easy because of the centralization of data resources.
Overhead is low (uses a thin protocol).

Disadvantage of SANs is their cost.

Intranet An intranet is basically a network that is local to a company. In other words, users from within this company can find all of their resources without having to go outside of the company. An intranet can include LANs, private WANs and MANs.
Extranet An extranet is an extended intranet, where certain internal services are made available to known external users or external business partners at remote locations.
Internet An internet is used when unknown external users need to access internal resources in your network. In other words, your company might have a web site that sells various products, and you want any external user to be able to access this service.
VPN A virtual private network (VPN) is a special type of secured network. A VPN is used to provide a secure connection across a public network, such as an internet. Extranets typically use a VPN to provide a secure connection between a company and its known external users or offices. Authentication is provided to validate the identities of the two peers. Confidentiality provides encryption of the data to keep it private from prying eyes. Integrity is used to ensure that the data sent between the two devices or sites has not been tampered with.

What Are The Layers Of The Osi Reference Model?

There are 7 OSI layers:
1. Physical Layer
2. Data Link Layer
3. Network Layer
4. Transport Layer
5. Session Layer
6. Presentation Layer
7. Application Layer

Describe Domain Name System

There are two types of client/server programs:

First is used directly by the user, such as e­mail

Second supports other application programs

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a supporting program that is used by other programs such as to find the IP address of an e­mail recipient.

What Are The Difference Between Domain And Work Group?

Find the difference between domain and workgroup:

Domain:

Server is responsible for data safety

Centralize administration

Main aim is to secure data

Best suite in company environments

Workgroup:

Every PC is responsible for its own security

No centralize administration

Main aim to save hardware resource

Best suite in the school, training institute, cyber cafe

Define Fully Qualified Domain Name And Partially Qualified Domain Name

In hierarchical namespace, names are defined in an inverted­tree structure with the root at the top. The tree can have only 128 levels: level 0 (root) to level 127. Each node in the tree has a label, which is a string with a maximum of 63 characters. The root label is a null string (empty string). In this tree, all the labels have a different name, which guarantee the uniqueness of the domain names. A full domain name is a sequence of labels separated by dots (.). The domain names are always read from the node up to the root.

Fully Qualified Domain Name

If a label is terminated by a null string or empty string, it is called a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).

Partially Qualified Domain Name

If a label is not terminated by a null string, it is called a partially qualified domain name (PQDN). A PQDN starts from a node, but it does not end with the root.

Describe Attenuation, Distortion, And Noise In Brief?

Attenuation: When a signal travels through a medium, it loses some of its energy due to resistance of the medium. This loss of energy is called the Attenuation. This is the reason why a wire carrying electric signals gets warm. Some of the electrical energy in the signal is converted to heat. To overcome this problem, amplifiers are used to amplify the signal. Unit of the decibel is used to find out if a signal has lost or gained strength. The decibel (dB) measures the relative strengths of two signals or one signal at two different points. If decibel is negative then a signal is attenuated and if the positive signal is amplified.

Formula: Where PI and P2 are the variable and the powers of a signal at points 1 and 2, respectively.

 Distortion: When the signal travels through the medium from one point to another it may chance to change the form or shape of the signal. It is called distortion. Distortion can occur in a composite signal made up of different frequencies. Each signal component has its own propagation speed through a traveling medium and, therefore, its own delay in reaching the final destination. Means signal components at the receiver have phases different from what they had at the sender.
 Noise: The third cause of impairment is Noise. Following types of noise are possible.

Thermal noise.

Induced noise.

Crosstalk noise.

Impulse noise.

This noise may corrupt the signal.Thermal noise is produced due to the random motion of electrons in a wire which creates an extra signal not originally sent by the transmitter. Induced noise comes from sources such as motors and other electronic appliances. These devices act as a sending antenna, and the transmission medium acts as the receiving antenna. Crosstalk is the effect of one wire on the other. Impulse noise comes from power lines, lightning etc.



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