April 8, 2018

Sreekanth B

How to I Generate Random Integers within a specific range in Java

How do I generate random integers within a specific range in Java?

How do I generate a random int value in a specific range?

I have tried the following, but those do not work:

Attempt 1:

/ Bug: `randomNum` can be bigger than `maximum`.
randomNum = minimum + (int)(Math.random() * maximum);
Attempt 2:

// Bug: `randomNum` can be smaller than `minimum`.
Random rn = new Random();
int n = maximum - minimum + 1;
int i = rn.nextInt() % n;
randomNum =  minimum + i;

In Java 1.7 or later, the standard way to do this is as follows:

import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;

// nextInt is normally exclusive of the top value,
// so add 1 to make it inclusive
int randomNum = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt(min, max + 1);

However, conversely there is no way to explicitly set the seed so it can be difficult to reproduce results in situations where that is useful such as testing or saving game states or similar. In those situations, the pre-Java 1.7 technique shown below can be used.

Before Java 1.7, the standard way to do this is as follows:

import java.util.Random;

/**
 * Returns a pseudo-random number between min and max, inclusive.
 * The difference between min and max can be at most
 * <code>Integer.MAX_VALUE - 1</code>.
 *
 * @param min Minimum value
 * @param max Maximum value.  Must be greater than min.
 * @return Integer between min and max, inclusive.
 * @see java.util.Random#nextInt(int)
 */
public static int randInt(int min, int max) {

    // NOTE: This will (intentionally) not run as written so that folks
    // copy-pasting have to think about how to initialize their
    // Random instance.  Initialization of the Random instance is outside
    // the main scope of the question, but some decent options are to have
    // a field that is initialized once and then re-used as needed or to
    // use ThreadLocalRandom (if using at least Java 1.7).
    //
    // In particular, do NOT do 'Random rand = new Random()' here or you
    // will get not very good / not very random results.
    Random rand;

    // nextInt is normally exclusive of the top value,
    // so add 1 to make it inclusive
    int randomNum = rand.nextInt((max - min) + 1) + min;

    return randomNum;
}

With java-8 they introduced the method ints(int randomNumberOrigin, int randomNumberBound) in the Random class.

For example if you want to generate five random integers (or a single one) in the range [0, 10], just do:

Random r = new Random();
int[] fiveRandomNumbers = r.ints(5, 0, 11).toArray();
int randomNumber = r.ints(1, 0, 11).findFirst().getAsInt();
The first parameter indicates just the size of the IntStream generated (which is the overloaded method of the one that produces an unlimited IntStream).

If you need to do multiple separate calls, you can create an infinite primitive iterator from the stream:

public final class IntRandomNumberGenerator {

    private PrimitiveIterator.OfInt randomIterator;

    /**
     * Initialize a new random number generator that generates
     * random numbers in the range [min, max]
     * @param min - the min value (inclusive)
     * @param max - the max value (inclusive)
     */
    public IntRandomNumberGenerator(int min, int max) {
        randomIterator = new Random().ints(min, max + 1).iterator();
    }

    /**
     * Returns a random number in the range (min, max)
     * @return a random number in the range (min, max)
     */
    public int nextInt() {
        return randomIterator.nextInt();
    }
}

You can also do it for double and long values.

Hope it helps.

Or

This methods might be convenient to use:

This method will return a random number between the provided min and max value:

public static int getRandomNumberBetween(int min, int max) {
    Random foo = new Random();
    int randomNumber = foo.nextInt(max - min) + min;
    if (randomNumber == min) {
        // Since the random number is between the min and max values, simply add 1
        return min + 1;
    } else {
        return randomNumber;
    }
}
and this method will return a random number from the provided min and max value (so the generated number could also be the min or max number):

public static int getRandomNumberFrom(int min, int max) {
    Random foo = new Random();
    int randomNumber = foo.nextInt((max + 1) - min) + min;

    return randomNumber;
}

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