October 12, 2018

Sreekanth B

AppDynamics Most Frequently Asked C++ Interview Questions Answers

Is It Possible For The Objects To Read And Write Themselves?

Yes! This can be explained with the help of following example

#include
#include
class employee
{
  private
     char name [ 20 ] ;
     int age ;
     float salary ;
     public
     void getdata( )
     {
       cout << "Enter name, age and salary of employee : " ;
       cin >> name >> age >> salary ;
     }
     void store( )
     {
       ofstream file ;
       file.open ( "EMPLOYEE.DAT", ios::app | ios::binary ) ;
       file.write ( ( char * ) this, sizeof ( *this ) ) ;
       file.close( ) ;
     }
     void retrieve ( int n )
     {
       ifstream file ;
       file.open ( "EMPLOYEE.DAT", ios::binary ) ;
       file.seekg ( n * sizeof ( employee ) ) ;
       file.read ( ( char * ) this, sizeof ( *this ) ) ;
       file.close( ) ;
     }
     void show( )
     {
       cout << "Name : " << name
       << endl << "Age : " << age
       << endl << "Salary :" << salary << endl ;
     }
} ;
void main( )
{
   employee e [ 5 ] ;
   for ( int i = 0 ; i <= 4 ; i++ )
   {
     e [ i ].getdata( ) ;
     e [ i ].store( ) ;
   }
   for ( i = 0 ; i <= 4 ; i++ )
   {
     e [ i ].retrieve ( i ) ;
     e [ i ].show( ) ;
   }
}
Here, employee is the class whose objects can write and read themselves. The getdata( ) function has been used to get the data of employee and store it in the data members name, age and salary. The store( ) function is used to write an object to the file. In this function a file has been opened in append mode and each time data of current object has been stored after the last record (if any) in the file.Function retrieve( ) is used to get the data of a particular employee from the file. This retrieved data has been stored in the data members name, age and salary. Here this has been used to store data since it contains the address of the current object. The function show( ) has been used to display the data of employee.
AppDynamics Most Frequently Asked C++ Interview Questions Answers
AppDynamics Most Frequently Asked C++ Interview Questions Answers

Why Is It Necessary To Use A Reference In The Argument To The Copy Constructor?

If we pass the copy constructor the argument by value, its copy would get constructed using the copy constructor. This means the copy constructor would call itself to make this copy. This process would go on and on until the compiler runs out of memory. This can be explained with the help of following example

class sample
{
   int i ;
   public
   sample ( sample p )
   {
     i = p.i ;
   }
} ;
void main( )
{
   sample s ;
   sample s1 ( s ) ;
}
While executing the statement sample s1 ( s ), the copy constructor would get called. As the copy construct here accepts a value, the value of s would be passed which would get collected in p. We can think of this statement as sample p = s. Here p is getting created and initialized. Means again the copy constructor would get called. This would result into recursive calls. Hence we must use a reference as an argument in a copy constructor.

What Is C++?

Released in 1985, C++ is an object-oriented programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup. C++ maintains almost all aspects of the C language, while simplifying memory management and adding several features - including a new datatype known as a class (you will learn more about these later) - to allow object-oriented programming. C++ maintains the features of C which allowed for low-level memory access but also gives the programmer new tools to simplify memory management.

C++ used for
C++ is a powerful general-purpose programming language. It can be used to create small programs or large applications. It can be used to make CGI scripts or console-only DOS programs. C++ allows you to create programs to do almost anything you need to do. The creator of C++, Bjarne Stroustrup, has put together a partial list of applications written in C++.

What Is A Modifier In C++?

A modifier, also called a modifying function is a member function that changes the value of at least one data member. In other words, an operation that modifies the state of an object. Modifiers are also known as 'mutators'. Example: The function mod is a modifier in the following code snippet

class test
{
int  x,y;
public
test()
{
x=0; y=0;
}
void mod()
{  x=10;
y=15;
}
};

What Is An Accessor In C++?

An accessor is a class operation that does not modify the state of an object in C++. The accessor functions need to be declared as const operations.

Differentiate Between A Template Class And Class Template In C++?

Template class:  A generic definition or a parameterized class not instantiated until the client provides the needed information. It's jargon for plain templates.

Class template: A class template specifies how individual classes can be constructed much like the way a class specifies how individual objects can be constructed. It's jargon for plain classes.

When Does A Name Clash Occur In C++?

A name clash occurs when a name is defined in more than one place. For example., two different class libraries could give two different classes the same name. If you try to use many class libraries at the same time, there is a fair chance that you will be unable to compile or link the program because of name clashes.

Define Namespace In C++?

It is a feature in C++ to minimize name collisions in the global name space. This namespace keyword assigns a distinct name to a library that allows other libraries to use the same identifier names without creating any name collisions. Furthermore, the compiler uses the namespace signature for differentiating the definitions.

What Is The Use Of 'using' Declaration In C++?

A using declaration in C++ makes it possible to use a name from a namespace without the scope operator.

What Is An Iterator Class In C++?

A class that is used to traverse through the objects maintained by a container class. There are five categories of iterators: input iterators, output iterators, forward iterators, bidirectional iterators, random access. An iterator is an entity that gives access to the contents of a container object without violating encapsulation constraints. Access to the contents is granted on a one-at-a-time basis in order. The order can be storage order (as in lists and queues) or some arbitrary order (as in array indices) or according to some ordering relation (as in an ordered binary tree). The iterator is a construct, which provides an interface that, when called, yields either the next element in the container, or some value denoting the fact that there are no more elements to examine. Iterators hide the details of access to and update of the elements of a container class. The simplest and safest iterators are those that permit read-only access to the contents of a container class.

What Is An Incomplete Type In C++?

Incomplete types refers to pointers in which there is non availability of the implementation of the referenced location or it points to some location whose value is not available for modification.

int *i=0x400    //i points to address 400
*i=0;          //set the  value of memory location pointed by i.
Incomplete types are otherwise called uninitialized pointers.

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