November 3, 2018

Sreekanth B

Intuit Most Frequently Asked Latest ASP.NET Interview Questions Answers

What Are Synonyms?

Synonyms give you the ability to provide alternate names for database objects. You can alias object names; for example, using the Employee table as Emp. You can also shorten names. This is especially useful when dealing with three and four part names; for example, shortening server.database.owner.object to object.

What Is Linq?

Language Integrated Query (LINQ) adds the ability to query objects using .NET languages. The LINQ to SQL object/relational mapping (O/RM) framework provides the following basic features

Tools to create classes (usually called entities) mapped to database tables
Compatibility with LINQ’s standard query operations
The DataContext class, with features such as entity record monitoring, automatic SQL statement generation, record concurrency detection, and much more.

What Is The Clr?

The CLR is a set of standard resources that (in theory) any .NET program can take advantage of, regardless of programming language. Many .NET framework classes Development, debugging, and profiling tools Execution and code management IL-to-native translators and optimizers What this means is that in the .NET world, different programming languages will be more equal in capability than they have ever been before, although clearly not all languages will support all CLR services.

What Is The Cts?

This is the range of types that the .NET runtime understands, and therefore that .NET applications can use. However note that not all .NET languages will support all the types in the CTS. The CTS is a superset of the CLS.

What Is The Cls?

This is a subset of the CTS which all .NET languages are expected to support. The idea is that any program which uses CLS-compliant types can interoperate with any .NET program written in any language.

What Is Il?

Also known as MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) or CIL (Common Inter mediate Language). All .NET source code (of any language) is compiled to IL. The IL is then converted to machine code at the point where the software is installed, or at run-time by a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler.
Intuit Most Frequently Asked Latest ASP.NET Interview Questions Answers
Intuit Most Frequently Asked Latest ASP.NET Interview Questions Answers

What Does 'managed' Mean In The .net Context?


Managed code: The .NET framework provides several core run-time services to the programs that run within it - for example exception handling and security. For these services to work, the code must provide a minimum level of information to the runtime.

Such code is called managed code. All C# and Visual Basic.NET code is managed by default. VS7 C++ code is not managed by default, but the compiler can produce managed code by specifying a command-line switch (/com+).

Managed data: This is data that is allocated and de-allocated by the .NET runtime's garbage collector. C# and VB.NET data is always managed. VS7 C++ data is unmanaged by default, even when using the /com+ switch, but it can be marked as managed using the __gc keyword.

Managed classes: This is usually referred to in the context of Managed Extensions (ME) for C++. When using ME C++, a class can be marked with the __gc keyword. As the name suggests, this means that the memory for instances of the class is managed by the garbage collector, but it also means more than that. The class becomes a fully paid-up member of the .NET community with the benefits and restrictions that brings. An example of a benefit is proper interop with classes written in other languages - for example, a managed C++ class can inherit from a VB class. An example of a restriction is that a managed class can only inherit from one base class.

What Is Reflection?

All .NET compilers produce metadata about the types defined in the modules they produce. This metadata is packaged along with the module (modules in turn are packaged together in assemblies), and can be accessed by a mechanism called reflection. The System.Reflection namespace contains classes that can be used to interrogate the types for a module/assembly.

Using reflection to access .NET metadata is very similar to using ITypeLib/ITypeInfo to access type library data in COM, and it is used for similar purposes - e.g. determining data type sizes for marshaling data across context/process/machine boundaries.

Reflection can also be used to dynamically invoke methods (see System.Type.InvokeMember ) , or even create types dynamically at run-time (see System.Reflection.Emit.TypeBuilder).

What Is The Difference Between Finalize And Dispose (garbage Collection) ?

Class instances often encapsulate control over resources that are not managed by the runtime, such as window handles (HWND), database connections, and so on. Therefore, you should provide both an explicit and an implicit way to free those resources. Provide implicit control by implementing the protected Finalize Method on an object (destructor syntax in C# and the Managed Extensions for C++). The garbage collector calls this method at some point after there are no longer any valid references to the object. In some cases, you might want to provide programmers using an object with the ability to explicitly release these external resources before the garbage collector frees the object. If an external resource is scarce or expensive, better performance can be achieved if the programmer explicitly releases resources when they are no longer being used. To provide explicit control, implement the Dispose method provided by the IDisposable Interface. The consumer of the object should call this method when it is done using the object.

Dispose can be called even if other references to the object are alive. Note that even when you provide explicit control by way of Dispose, you should provide implicit cleanup using the Finalize method. Finalize provides a backup to prevent resources from permanently leaking if the programmer fails to call Dispose.

What Is Partial Assembly References?

Full Assembly reference: A full assembly reference includes the assembly's text name, version, culture, and public key token (if the assembly has a strong name). A full assembly reference is required if you reference any assembly that is part of the common language runtime or any assembly located in the global assembly cache.

Changes To Which Portion Of Version Number Indicates An Incompatible Change?

Major or minor. Changes to the major or minor portion of the version number indicate an incompatible change. Under this convention then, version 2.0.0.0 would be considered incompatible with version 1.0.0.0. Examples of an incompatible change would be a change to the types of some method parameters or the removal of a type or method altogether. Build. The Build number is typically used to distinguish between daily builds or smaller compatible releases. Revision. Changes to the revision number are typically reserved for an incremental build needed to fix a particular bug. You'll sometimes hear this referred to as the "emergency bug fix" number in that the revision is what is often changed when a fix to a specific bug is shipped to a customer.

How To Set The Debug Mode?

Debug Mode for ASP.NET applications - To set ASP.NET appplication in debugging mode, edit the application's web.config and assign the "debug" attribute in < compilation > section to "true" as show below

< configuration >
< system.web >
< compilation defaultLanguage="vb" debug="true" / >
....
...
..
< / configuration >

This case-sensitive attribute debug tells ASP.NET to generate symbols for dynamically generated files and enables the debugger to attach to the ASP.NET application. ASP.NET will detect this change automatically, without the need to restart the server. Debug Mode for ASP.NET Webservices - Debugging an XML Web service created with ASP.NET is similar to the debugging an ASP.NET Web application.

What Is Managed And Unmanaged Code?

The .NET framework provides several core run-time services to the programs that run within it - for example exception handling and security. For these services to work, the code must provide a minimum level of information to the runtime. i.e., code executing under the control of the CLR is called managed code. For example, any code written in C# or Visual Basic .NET is managed code. Code that runs outside the CLR is referred to as "unmanaged code." COM components, ActiveX components, and Win32 API functions are examples of unmanaged code.

Describe The Advantages Of Writing A Managed Code Application Instead Of Unmanaged One. What's Involved In Certain Piece Of Code Being Managed?

"Advantages includes automatic garbage collection, memory management, security, type checking, versioning.

Managed code is compiled for the .NET run-time environment. It runs in the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is the heart of the .NET Framework. The CLR provides services such as security, memory management, and cross-language integration. Managed applications written to take advantage of the features of the CLR perform more efficiently and safely, and take better advantage of developers existing expertise in languages that support the .NET Framework.

Unmanaged code includes all code written before the .NET Framework was introduced—this includes code written to use COM, native Win32, and Visual Basic 6. Because it does not run inside the .NET environment, unmanaged code cannot make use of any .NET managed facilities."

What Is Boxing And Unboxing?

Boxing is implicit conversion of ValueTypes to Reference Types (Object). UnBoxing is explicit conversion of Reference Types (Object) to its equivalent ValueTypes. It requires type-casting.

What Is The Sequence Of Operation Takes Place When A Page Is Loaded?

BeginTranaction - only if the request is transacted,
Init - every time a page is processed,
LoadViewState - Only on postback,
ProcessPostData1 - Only on postback,
Load - every time,
ProcessData2 - Only on Postback,
RaiseChangedEvent - Only on Postback,
RaisePostBackEvent - Only on Postback,
PreRender - everytime,
BuildTraceTree - only if tracing is enabled,
SaveViewState - every time,
Render - Everytime,
End Transaction - only if the request is transacted,
Trace.EndRequest - only when tracing is enabled,
UnloadRecursive - Every request.

What Are The Different Types Of Assemblies Available And Their Purpose?

Private, Public/shared and Satellite Assemblies.

Private Assemblies : Assembly used within an application is known as private assemblies.

Public/shared Assemblies : Assembly which can be shared across applicaiton is known as shared assemblies. Strong Name has to be created to create a shared assembly. This can be done using SN.EXE. The same has to be registered using GACUtil.exe (Global Assembly Cache).

Satellite Assemblies : These assemblies contain resource files pertaining to a locale (Culture+Language). These assemblies are used in deploying an Gloabl applicaiton for different languages.

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